Caesar is distracted from the siege by betrayal from his Gallic allies the Aedui, led by Litaviccus whom he fought and defeated after a desperate struggle. What courage do you think would our relatives and friends have, if eighty thousand men were butchered in one spot, supposing that they should be forced to come to an action almost over our corpses? 7.85 Caesar, having selected a commanding situation, sees distinctly whatever is going on in every quarter, and sends assistance to his troops when hard pressed. At first the plan works because the Germanic mercenaries help the Arverni and Sequani to oppress their enemy, the Aedui. Some English editions state that Astérix's village of indomitable Gauls is the "fourth part" of Gaul, not yet having been conquered by Caesar. 7.67 This proposal receiving general approbation, and all being forced to take the oath, on the next day the cavalry were divided into three parts, and two of these divisions made a demonstration on our two flanks; while one in front began to obstruct our march. For they never have carried on wars on any other terms. The besieged, beholding from the town the slaughter and flight of their countrymen, despairing of safety, lead back their troops from the fortifications. If you can not be assured by their dispatches, since every avenue is blocked up, take the Romans as evidence that there approach is drawing near; since they, intimidated by alarm at this, labor night and day at their works. Caesar, wishing to make an example of the Veneti for violating the customs of diplomacy by imprisoning the envoys, executes their chief nobles and sells the rest of them into slavery. When these two legions were delivered to Italy, instead of being sent to fight against the Parthians, they remained in Italy and were handed over to Pompey. São José do Rio Preto, Junho de 2002 3 Apresentação - Cecília Demian 1 A Carta Perdid... ...u mestre, formado no Caraça, que exigia da classe a tradução de parte do “Bello Gallico “ de César e a análise lógica do primeiro canto dos Lusíada..., formado no Caraça, que exigia da classe a tradução de parte do “Bello Gallico “ de César e a análise lógica do primeiro canto dos Lusíadas. 7.80 Caesar, having stationed his army on both sides of the fortifications, in order that, if occasion should arise, each should hold and know his own post, orders the cavalry to issue forth from the camp and commence action. He, having issued from the camp at the first watch, and having almost completed his march a little before the dawn, hid himself behind the mountain, and ordered his soldiers to refresh themselves after their labor during the night. CAESAR: DE BELLO GALLICO Book 6. Several of our soldiers were unexpectedly wounded by these, and left the battle. 7.75 While those things are carried on at Alesia, the Gauls, having convened a council of their chief nobility, determine that all who could bear arms should not be called out, which was the opinion of Vercingetorix, but that a fixed number should be levied from each state; lest, when so great a multitude assembled together, they could neither govern nor distinguish their men, nor have the means of supplying them with corn. Caesar summons the other Roman legions and rushes to Cicero's aid. De Bello Gallico consists of eight books: seven written by Caesar himself, and the eighth book added later by Aulus Hirtius, one of Caesar's generals. As more and more Gallic tribes join the rebellion, Caesar reaches his armies in Narbo and begins to move them toward the territory of the Arverni. Our troops, laying aside their javelins, carry on the engagement with their swords. After quelling a rebellion among the Bituriges, Caesar rewards his troops with large monetary bonuses. Caesar’s attention is momentarily diverted to Gallia Belgica as Indutiomarus and Cingetorix struggle for power over the Treveri. There was, on the north side, a hill, which our men could not include in their works, on account of the extent of the circuit, and had necessarily made their camp in ground almost disadvantageous, and pretty steep. So the levy of troops in reality took away two legions from Caesar. What, therefore, is my design? They concoct a plan to burn their homes and then make a mass exodus out of their homeland. If our men seemed to be distressed, or hard pressed in any quarter, Caesar usually ordered the troops to advance, and the army to wheel round in that quarter; which conduct retarded the enemy in the pursuit, and encouraged our men by the hope of support. To their nobles he promises money, and to their state the dominion of the whole province. The town Alesia commanded a view of the whole plain. One example is having Caesar talk about himself in the third person as in the book. Vercingetorix tells his troops that they must adopt a new strategy: burn all the towns and crops in the area so as to starve the Romans. The Allobroges, placing guards along the course of the Rhine, defend their frontiers with great vigilance and energy. A slaughter ensues in every direction, and three of the noblest of the Aedui are taken and brought to Caesar: Cotus, the commander of the cavalry, who had been engaged in the contest with Convictolitanis the last election, Cavarillus, who had held the command of the infantry after the revolt of Litavicus, and Eporedirix, under whose command the Aedui had engaged in war against the Sequani, before the arrival of Caesar. But what other motive or wish have the Romans, than, induced by envy, to settle in the lands and states of those whom they have learned by fame to be noble and powerful in war, and impose on them perpetual slavery? The legion that Pompey contributes is his in name only, because it was enlisted in Caesar's territory, and then Caesar contributed another legion that had been with him previously in Gaul. The courage of our men is increased by the additional support of the legions; the enemy being put to flight, hinder one another by their numbers, and as only the narrower gates were left open, are crowded together in them; then the Germans pursue them with vigor even to the fortifications. As the action was carried on in sight of all, neither a brave nor cowardly act could be concealed; both the desire of praise and the fear of ignominy, urged on each party to valor. The Sigambri, a Germanic tribe, come and take a large amount of cattle. Bohn (1869),, 2009. He depicts the Germans as primitive hunter gatherers with diets mostly consisting of meat and dairy products who only celebrate earthly gods such as the sun, fire, and the moon (6.21–22). ... quae paulo ante Romanis de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestari et more Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre coeperunt. He sends Caius Antistius Reginus into the [country of the] Ambivareti, Titus Sextius into the territories of the Bituriges, and Caius Caninius Rebilus into those of the Ruteni, with one legion each. Instead, he turns his attention to the Treveri and Ambiorix. The Romans defeat Ariovistus, and Caesar is overjoyed to find and rescue C. Valerius Procillus, the envoy who had earlier been captured by Ariovistus. The idea uppermost in the minds of both parties is, that the present is the time in which they would have the fairest opportunity of making a struggle; the Gauls despairing of all safety, unless they should succeed in forcing the lines: the Romans expecting an end to all their labors if they should gain the day. There were five rows in connection with, and intersecting each other; and whoever entered within them were likely to impale themselves on very sharp stakes. When Caesar approaches Cicero’s camp, the Belgae abandon their siege of Cicero's camp and head toward Caesar’s troops. Having, therefore, cut down the trunks of trees or very thick branches, and having stripped their tops of the bark, and sharpened them into a point, he drew a continued trench every where five feet deep. After much discussion and disagreement, the Romans decide to trust Ambiorix and leave the next morning. The Suebi, an enormous Germanic tribe, have a reputation for physical toughness and military prowess. In De Bello Gallico 6.21–28, Julius Caesar provides his audience with a picture of Germanic lifestyle and culture. Caesar quickly marches to the territory of the Senones. Labienus battles the Parisii, and the entire Gallic war becomes more dangerous as the Aedui, Rome's longtime allies, revolt and try to induce other tribes to revolt as well. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have not come at the appointed day? Aedui de consilio legatorum, quos Caesar ad exercitum reliquerat, copias equitatus peditatusque subsidio Biturigibus mittunt. The Gauls within, despairing of forcing the fortifications in the plains on account of the greatness of the works, attempt the places precipitous in ascent: hither they bring the engines which they had prepared; by the immense number of their missiles they dislodge the defenders from the turrets: they fill the ditches with clay and hurdles, then clear the way; they tear down the rampart and breast-work with hooks. Acco, their leader, is forced to ask for pardon and give hostages to Caesar as collateral. He sets over them the brother of Eporedirix, and orders him to wage war against the Allobroges. While en route to Italy, Caesar hears that Mark Antony has already been elected as augur, and the townspeople give Caesar a generous and celebratory welcome. (De Bello Gallico, I, 2) They planned to travel across Gaul to the west coast, a route that would have taken them through lands of the Aedui, a Roman ally, and the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul. 7.71 Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans. The Germans retreat, after slaying many and taking several horses. After devastating the territory of the Eburones, Caesar holds a council of Gaul in which he investigates the rebellion of the Senones and Carnutes mentioned at the beginning of book six. Caesar quickly arrives with Roman troops. Immediately after midnight, the cavalry are sent out and overtake the rear, a great number are taken or cut to pieces, the rest by flight escape in different directions to their respective states. Commentarii de bello Gallico, sive De bello Gallico, est opus Gaii Iulii Caesaris octo libros continens, in quibus suam incursionem in Galliam, Helvetiam, Germaniam, Britanniam factam describit. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. Our men have no longer arms or strength. 44. Aedui capti ad Caesarem perducuntur: Cotus, praefectus equitum, quicontroversiam cum Convictolitavi proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copiispraefuerat, et Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Aedui cum Sequanis bello contenderant. Versione originale in latino. When the Roman troops begin to cross back over to the continent, they are attacked by the Morini, who are then defeated by the Romans. But if you know not these things which are going on in distant countries, look to the neighboring Gaul, which being reduced to the form of a province, stripped of its rights and laws, and subjected to Roman despotism, is oppressed by perpetual slavery.". Ariovistus and the events he was part of are known from Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. On other occasions, he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celtic peoples known to the Romans as Gauls, from the English Channel to Lugdunum (Lyon). When battle between the Germanics and the Romans finally commences, there is fierce hand-to-hand combat. 7.68 All his cavalry being routed, Vercingetorix led back his troops in the same order as he had arranged them before the camp, and immediately began to march to Alesia, which is a town of the Mandubii, and ordered the baggage to be speedily brought forth from the camp, and follow him closely. The Treveri prepare to attack the camp of Labienus. Caesar orders the legions which he had drawn up in front of the rampart to advance a little. Therefore he tries to ensure peace by treating all the Gauls respectfully and giving gifts to the leading men of Gaul. 7.82 While the Gauls were at a distance from the fortification, they did more execution, owing to the immense number of their weapons: after they came nearer, they either unawares empaled themselves on the spurs, or were pierced by the mural darts from the ramparts and towers, and thus perished. 7.72 Caesar, on learning these proceedings from the deserters and captives, adopted the following system of fortification; he dug a trench twenty feet deep, with perpendicular sides, in such a manner that the base of this trench should extend so far as the edges were apart at the top. Another major action taken by Diviciacus was his imploring of Caesar to take action against the Germans and their leader, Ariovistus. Although the Roman infantry successfully cross the English channel, the cavalry fail to cross, putting the Romans at a disadvantage.          Political / Social. A major aim of the book was to gain the Romans' suffrages. A shout being raised by both sides, it was succeeded by a general shout along the ramparts and whole line of fortifications. 7.84 Vercingetorix, having beheld his countrymen from the citadel of Alesia, issues forth from the town; he brings forth from the camp long hooks, movable pent-houses, mural hooks, and other things, which he had prepared for the purpose of making a sally. Caesar puts his legions in winter quarters among various tribes of Gaul. The Gauls had scattered archers and light-armed infantry here and there, among their cavalry, to give relief to their retreating troops, and sustain the impetuosity of our cavalry. Accordingly, drawing out their troops, they encamp before the town, and cover the nearest trench with hurdles and fill it up with earth, and make ready for a sally and every casualty. The circuit of that fortification, which was commenced by the Romans, comprised eleven miles. In order that they [the Gauls] may do so with greater spirit, he would marshal all their forces before the camp, and intimidate the enemy. He himself goes to the rest, and exhorts them not to succumb to the toil; he shows them that the fruits of all former engagements depend on that day and hour. 7.71 Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans. Consulta qui la traduzione all'italiano di Paragrafo 12 - Situazione politica, Libro 6 dell'opera latina De Bello Gallico, di Cesare He charges them when departing "that each of them should go to his respective state, and press for the war all who were old enough to bear arms; he states his own merits, and conjures them to consider his safety, and not surrender him who had deserved so well of the general freedom, to the enemy for torture; he points out to them that, if they should be remiss, eighty thousand chosen men would perish with him; that upon making a calculation, he had barely corn for thirty days, but could hold out a little longer by economy." 7.65 The only guards provided against all these contingencies were twenty-two cohorts, which were collected from the entire province by Lucius Caesar, the lieutenant, and opposed to the enemy in every quarter. To do as our ancestors did in the war against the Cimbri and Teutones, which was by no means equally momentous who, when driven into their towns, and oppressed by similar privations, supported life by the corpses of those who appeared useless for war on account of their age, and did not surrender to the enemy: and even if we had not a precedent for such cruel conduct, still I should consider it most glorious that one should be established, and delivered to posterity. "The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar" (menu page linking 8 books), translated by W.A.

aedui de bello gallico

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